MODİFİYE HUMMERS YÖNTEMİYLE GRAFEN OKSİT (GO) SENTEZİ VE KARAKTERİZASYONU

Mustafa Yazıcı, İsmail Tiyek, Mehmet Sabri Ersoy, Mehmet Hakkı Alma, Utkay Dönmez, Behzat Yıldırım, Tufan Salan, Şükrü Karataş, Serhan Uruş, İbrahim Karteri, Kübra Yıldız
4.988 1.739

Öz


ÖZET

Bu çalışmada modifiye Hummers yöntemi kullanılarak grafitten grafen oksit (GO) sentezlenmiştir. Literatürde bilinen diğer yöntemlere göre modifiye Hummers yöntemi; işlem basamakları açısından daha basit ve düşük maliyetlidir. Ayrıca Hummers yöntemine göre daha tehlikesiz ve daha çevre dostu bir yöntemdir. SEM görüntülerinde katmanlı ve çok ince GO yapıları gözlenmiştir. EDX/SEM Elementel analizde oksijen (O) oranının yaklaşık %23,60 olması oksidasyon işleminin gerçekleştiğini göstermektedir. GO yapısının termal kararlılığı TGA analizinden anlaşılmaktadır. XRD analizinde 2θ piki, 10,5524° de elde edilmiştir. Ayrıca, FT-IR spektroskopisi ve Raman spektroskopisinde ise GO’e ait karakteristik pikler görülmüştür. Elde edilen sonuçlardan modifiye Hummers yöntemi ile grafit tozundan başarılı bir şekilde GO sentezlendiği anlaşılmaktadır.


Anahtar kelimeler


Grafen; Grafen Oksit Sentezi; Modifiye Hummers Yöntemi.

Tam metin:

PDF

Referanslar


. Sengupta R., Bhattacharya M., Bandyopadhyay S., Bhowmick A.K., “A review on the mechanical and electrical properties of graphite and modified graphite reinforced polymer composites”, Progress in Polymer Science, 36(5):638–670, 2011.

. Topçu A.A., “A green pathway for the production of chemically exfoliated graphene sheets with the assistance of microwave irradiation”, Master of Science, Koç University, Material Science and Engineering, İstanbul, 15, 2012.

. Karteri İ., Karataş Ş., Yakuphanoğlu F., , “Electrical characterization of graphene oxide and organic dielectriclayers based on thin film transistor”, Applied Surface Science, 318: 74-78, 2014.

. Karteri İ., Karataş Ş., Al-Ghamdi A., Yakuphanoğlu F., “The electrical characteristics of thin film transistors with graphene oxide and organic ınsulators”, Synthetic Metals, 199: 241–245, 2015.

. Ersoy M.S., Dönmez U., Yildiz K., Salan T., Yazici M., Tiyek İ., Alma M.H., “Graphene applied textile materials for wearable e-textiles”, 5th International Istanbul Textile Congress 2015: Innovative Technologies “Inspire To Innovate, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, 82-86, 11th -12th September 2015.

. Park S. And Ruoff R., “Chemical methods for the production of graphene”, Nature Nanotechnology, 4: 217-224, 2009.

. Song J., Wang X. and Chang C.T., “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide”, Journal of Nanomaterials, Artical ID 276143, Vol.2014, 6 pages, 2014.

. Wang Q., Du Y., Feng Q., Huang F., Lu K., Lui J., Wei Q., “Nanostructures and surface nanomechanical properties of polyacrylonitrile/graphene oxide composite nanofibres by electrospinning”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 128(2):1152-1156, 2013.

. Ji X., Cui L., Xu Y., Liu J., “Non-covalent interactions for synthesis of new graphene based composites”, Composites Science And Technology, 106:25-31, 2015.

. Song N., Yang J. Ding P., Tang S., Liu Y., And Shi L., “Effect of covalent-functionalized graphene oxide with polymer and reactive compatibilization on thermal properties of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 53(51): 19951−19960, 2014.

. Yuan B., Bao C., Song L., Hong N., Liew K.M., Hu Y., “Preparation of functionalized graphene oxide/polypropylene nanocomposite with significantly ımproved thermal stability and studies on the crystallization behavior and mechanical properties”, Chemical Engineering Journal, 237: 411–420, 2014.

. Akbudak S., “Grafenin keşfi”, Nanoteknoloji ve Nanotıp Bilim Dergisi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ankara, Nanobülten-16: 5-10, 2012.

. Loryuenyong V., Totepvimarn K., Eimburanapravat P., Boonchompoo W., and Buasri A., “Preparation and characterization of reduced graphene oxide sheets via water-based exfoliation and reduction methods”, Hindawi-Advances In Materials Science and Engineering, Article ID 923403, Volume 2013:5 pages, 2013.

. Dittrich B., Wartig K.A., Hofmann D., Mülhaupt R., Schartel B., “Flame retardancy through carbon nanomaterials: carbon black, multiwall nanotubes, expanded graphite, multi-layer graphene and graphene ın polypropylene”, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 98(8):1495-1505, 2013.

. Botas C., Lvarez P.A., Blanco P., Granda M., Blanco C., Santamarı R.A., Romasanta L.J., Verdejo R., Lo´Pez-Manchado M.A., Menendez R., “Graphene materials with different structures prepared from the same graphite by the hummers and brodie methods”, Carbon, 65: 156 –164, 2013.

. Huang Y., Qin Y., Zhou Y., Niu H., Yu Z.Z, And Dong J.Y., “Polypropylene/Graphene oxide nanocomposites prepared by ın situ ziegler-natta polymerization”, Chemistry of Materials, 22(13): 4096-4102, 2010.

. Kim H., Abdala A.A., and Macosko C.W., “Graphene/Polymer nanocomposites”, Macromolecules, 43(16): 6515–6530, 2010.

. Menchaca-Campos C., García-Pérez C., Castañeda I., García-Sánchez M.A., Guardián R., and Uruchurtu J., “Nylon/Graphene oxide electrospun composite coating”, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, International Journal of Polymer Science, Article ID 621618, Volume 2013: 9 pages, 2013.

. Marcano D.C., Kosynkin D.V., Berlin J.M., Sinitskii A., Sun Z., Slesarev A., Alemany L.B., Lu W. and Tour J.M., “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide”, Amercan Chemical Society ACS Nano, 4(8): 4806-4814, 2010.

. Arbuzov, A.A., Tarasov, B.P., and Muradyan, V.E., “Synthesis of few-layer graphene sheets via chemical and thermal reduction of graphite oxide”, Proceedings of the International Conference Nanomaterials: Applications and Properties, Sumy State University Publishing. Sumy, Ukraine No.1, No.1, pp.01 NDLCN07-01NDLCN07, 2012.

. Ke H., Pang Z., Xu Y., Chen X., Fu J., Cai Y., Huang F., Wei Q., “Graphene oxide ımproved thermal and mechanical properties of electrospun methy stearate/polyacrylonitrile from-stable phase cahnge composite nanofibers”, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 117(1), 109-122, 2014.

. Hu X., Yu Y., Wang Y., Zhou J., Song L., “Separating nano graphene oxide from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified hummers method with alkaline solution”, Applied Surface Science, 329: 83-86, 2015.

. Liao K.H., Mittal A., Bose S., Leighton C., Mkhoyan K.A. and Macosko C.W., “Aqueous only route toward graphene from graphite oxide”, American Chemical Society-ACS Nano, 5(2): 1253-1258, 2011.

. Shahriary L., Athawale A.A., “Graphene oxide synthesized by using modified hummers approach”, Intenational Journal of Renewable Energy and Environmental Engineering, 02(01): 58-63, 2014.

. Hanifah M.F.R, Jaafar J., Aziz M., Ismail A.F., Rahman M.A., Othman M.H.D., “Synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheets via modified hummers’ method and ıts physicochemical properties”, Jurnal Teknologi, 74(1): 189-192, 2015.

. Sun, L., & Fugetsu, B., “Massive production of graphene oxide from expanded graphite”, Materials Letters, 109:207–210, 2013.

. Nakajima T., Mabuchi A., Hagiwara R., “A new structure model of graphite oxide”, Carbon, 26 (3):357-361, 1988.

. He H., Klinowski J., Foster M., Left A., “A new structure model for graphite oxide”, Chemical Physics Letters, 287(1-2):53-56, 1998.

. Zhou T., Chen F., Liu K., Deng H., Zhang Q., Feng J. and Fu Q., “A simple and efficient method to prepare graphene by reduction of graphite oxide with sodium hydrosulfite”, Nanotechnology, 22(4): 045704, 2011.

. Chen J., Yao B., Li C., Shi G., “An improved hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide”, Carbon, 64, 225–229, 2013.

. Hummers, W.S., Offeman, R.E., “Preparation of graphitic oxide”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80 (6): 1339, 1958.

. Schniepp, H. C., Li, J. L., McAllister, M. J., Sai, H., Herrera-Alonso, M., Adamson, D. H., Prud'Homme, R. K., Car, R., Saville, D. A., Aksay, I. A., “Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide”, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 110 (17): 8535–8539, 2006.

. Zhou Y., Bao Q., Tang L.A.L., Zhong Y., Loh K.P., “Hydrothermal dehydration for the “green” reduced of exfoliated grephene oxide to graphene and demonstration of tunable optical limiting properties”, Chemistry of Materials, 21(13): 2950-2956, 2009.

. Ryu S.H., Shanmugharaj A.M., “Influence of long-chain alkylamine-modified graphene oxide on the crystallization, mechanical and electrical properties of isostatic polypropylene nanocomposites”, Chemical Engineering Journal, 244, 552-560, 2014.

. You F., Wang D., Li X., Liu M., Dang Z.M., Hu G.H., “Synthesis of polypropylene-grafted graphene and ıts compatibilization effect on polypropylene blends”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 131(13):40455, 2014.

. Ferrari A.C., “Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: disorder, electron-phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects”, Solid State Communications, 143(1): 47-57, 2007.

. Chen W., Yan L., and Bangal P.R., “Chemical reduction of graphene oxide to graphene by sulfur-containing compounds”, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 114(47): 19885-19890, 2010.

. Bajaj, P., Sreekumar, T.V. and Sen, K., “Structure development during dry-jet-wet spinning of acrylonitrile/vinyl acids and acrylonitrile/methyl acrylate copolymers”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 86(3) : 773-778, 2002.

. Tiyek, İ., Bozdoğan, F., “Poliakrilonitril lif üretiminde koagülasyon banyo sıcaklığının lif içyapısına etkisinin geniş açı x-ışınları difraksiyonu ile incelenmesi”, Tekstil ve Konfeksiyon, 2: 114-120, 2008.

. Erzurumluoğlu, L., Poli(Hekzametilen Adipamit) (Poliamid 66) esaslı karbon lifi üretimi sırasında antioksidan kullanımının termal stabilizasyon ve karbonizasyon aşamalarına etkilerinin araştırılması, yapısal ve mekanik özelliklerinin karakterize edilmesi, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Erciyes Üniversitesi, Kayseri, 2015.

. Pandey, D., Reifenberger, R., Piner, R., “Scanning probe microscopy study of exfoliated oxidized graphene sheets”, Surface Science, 602 (9): 1607, 2008.




e-ISSN:2147-9526